We appreciate all the kind remarks and suggestions from the many medical students over the past 7 years regarding the Case Files® series. Your positive reception has been an incredible encouragement, especially in light of the short life of the Case Files® series. In this first edition of Case Files®: Anesthesiology, the basic format of the other books in the series has been retained, with some unique twists to be best suited to the field of anesthesiology. Cases 1-9 are deemed “Anesthesiology 101,” which reviews the basics such as machine setup, preoperative evaluation, and how to troubleshoot an intraoperative emergency. This first section grew from an initial draft of a few key concepts to 9 independent clinical cases because we wanted to ensure that students fully grasped the significance of each teaching point. The remaining cases are organized by surgical or organ system to aid the student in the general approach to physiology and pathophysiology. The case listing in the back of the book and the index will allow a student quickly to reference similar situations for the sake of comparison. The multiple choice questions have been carefully reviewed and rewritten to ensure that they comply with the National Board and USMLE Step 2 format. As with any first edition, this undertaking has required more effort, yet with the toil comes much satisfaction with the end product. We hope that the reader will enjoy learning anesthesiology through the simulated clinical cases and that this text will help in organizing the information and clinical approach in such a challenging specialty. It is certainly a privilege to be a teacher for so many students, and it is with humility that we present this book.